Economía marxista para el Siglo XXI

Archivo para febrero, 2011

Medición del valor de cambio y la medida invariable en la Teoría Clásica del Valor

Martínez González B. Gloria. 2011. Medición del valor de cambio y la medida invariable en la Teoría Clásica del Valor.   Econo Marx 21, 27 de febrero.

Introducción

En este ensayo reflexionamos sobre la teoría clásica del valor en Adam Smith y David Ricardo. Destacamos
algunos puntos que nos parecen inconsistentes en ambos autores. Argumentamos que los defectos de la
teoría clásica del valor se asientan en que le asignan un papel subordinado al trabajo pues lo que aparece
en primer plano es el valor de cambio. Haremos ver que los clásicos elaboran una teoría del valor trabajo
que se apoya sobre su cabeza y que deberá esperar a Marx para poder caminar.
En la primera parte revisamos los planteamientos que Smith y Ricardo hicieron sobre el valor de cambio
y las relaciones que establecieron entre éste y los precios natural y de mercado. En la segunda parte
examinamos cómo está presente el problema de la medición del valor de cambio en el discurso de los
autores y el papel que le confieren al trabajo en relación con el valor de cambio. Finalmente apuntamos
las conclusiones de nuestro análisis.

Teoría y credibilidad empírica de la teoría del dinero mercancía

John Weeks,
Abstract
The recent instability in financial markets demonstrated the inadequacy of the
mainstream treatment of money and the underlying production base. This has stimulated
interest in the possible role of a money commodity. I demonstrate that the fundamental
function of monetary theory, an explanation of the general level of prices, is provided
through only two analytical mechanisms, quantity-based valueless money or a money
commodity. I show that the quantity-based explanation is unsound by its own logic. I
then present the theoretical argument for commodity-based money, which is analytically
consistent. Theoretical superiority of commodity-based monetary theory has little
practical impact because the commodity money hypothesis is considered empirically
absurd. The final section demonstrates prima facie credibility of a link between gold and
aggregate prices in the United States since the end of World War II. This credibility
should motivate Marxists and other critics of mainstream economics to treat seriously
commodity-based monetary theory.

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Radical Labor Education, Part 4: Renewal?

M. Yates

In terms of my labor education, a turning point occurred with the election of the New Voice slate to AFL-CIO leadership in 1995. The old Cold War apparatus that had supported U.S. imperialism for so long was partially dismantled, and the Federation and some of its member unions became more open to left-liberal and even radical ideas. I noticed that I could discuss the political economy of Karl Marx more openly and that students were not only receptive but enthusiastic. Workers had always had an intuitive grasp of concepts like surplus labor time and surplus value, the inherent and ineradicable conflict between themselves and their employers, the reserve army of labor, and the apologetic nature of mainstream economics. But now I didn’t have to beat around the bush, and I could cover more topics in greater depth. I could ask students to imagine alternative modes of production and distribution and different ways in which work might be organized, and at least some of them would know what I was talking about. They could begin to see that it is capitalism itself that is responsible for their problems.

Anti-communism also served to make workers here xenophobic, blaming those in other countries for the depredations of their own employers. Not that many years ago, many of my students were ignorant of or hostile to workers in the rest of the world. Union workers were unaware of the efforts of their own unions, in collaboration with their employers and their government, to destroy progressive labor movements around the globe. Today, the rapid globalization of capital offers opportunities for radical labor educators to challenge the isolation of U.S. workers. Auto workers cannot ignore what happens in Japan, Mexico, or South Korea. In the past, there was some truth to the notion that workers in this country benefitted from the exploitation of foreign workers, but this is not the case now. Workers everywhere are in competition with workers everywhere else.

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Salario, precio y ganancia video

Marx: Salario, precio y ganancia de Karl Marx

Autor: PTS

Primera parte

Segunda parte

The Value of Marx

Saad-Filho, Alfredo. The Value of Marx: Political economy for contemporary capitalism. Routledge. Londres y Nueva York, 2002

Content

1 Materialist dialectics 7
1.1 Real abstractions and mental generalisations 8
1.2 Marx, Hegel and ‘new dialectics’ 15
1.3 Conclusion 20
2 Interpretations of Marx’s value theory 21
2.1 Embodied labour approaches 21
2.2 Value form theories 26
2.3 Conclusion 33
3 Value and capital 35
3.1 Division of labour, exploitation and value 35
3.2 Capital 38
3.3 Conclusion 42
4 Wages and exploitation 44
4.1 Wage labour and exploitation 44
4.2 Value of labour power 48
4.3 Conclusion 53
5 Values, prices and exploitation 54
5.1 Normalisation of labour 55
5.2 Synchronisation of labour 62
5.3 Homogenisation of labour 66
5.4 Conclusion 69
6 Composition of capital 71
6.1 Understanding the composition of capital 71
6.2 Production and the composition of capital 73
6.3 Capital accumulation 78
6.4 Conclusion 79
7 Transformation of values into prices of production 81
7.1 Surplus value, profit and the composition of capital 82
7.2 From values to prices of production 84
7.3 The transformation of input values 87
7.4 Conclusion 90
8 Money, credit and inflation 92
8.1 Labour and money 92
8.2 Money and prices of production 97
8.3 Credit, money and inflation 99
8.4 Conclusion 105
Conclusion 107
Notes 111
Bibliography 148
Index 168

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