Economía marxista para el Siglo XXI

Archivo para enero, 2013

A QUESTÃO DA EXPLORAÇÃO DA FORÇA DE TRABALHO NAS ECONOMIAS DEPENDENTES*

Ponencia presentada en VII COLÓQUIO INTERNACIONAL MARX E ENGELS

Elizeu Serra de Araujo

O artigo examina o modo pelo qual a questão da exploração da força de trabalho se coloca no caso de economias que mantêm uma relação de dependência frente à economia mundial capitalista. Essas economias se diferenciam estruturalmente das economias capitalistas avançadas no tocante ao grau e às modalidades predominantes de exploração da força de trabalho? Ou as diferenças que apresentam são apenas cíclicas ou conjunturais?

Descargue el artículo completo

*Este trabalho é parte da tese de doutorado do autor, As condições de exploração da força de trabalho no Brasil na fase atual do capitalismo: uma análise do período 1990-2007 (2011).

Los viajes de ida y vuelta del pensamiento crítico económico

Miren_EtxezarretaMiren Etxezarreta

Resumen: En este artículo se revisa brevemente la evolución del pensamiento económico desde la crisis de los setenta. Se presenta, primero, la evolución que causó el fin del keynesianismo y el resurgir de la economía neoclásica y las políticas económicas neoliberales, para pasar después a revisar los cambios experimentados por el pensamiento marxista . Y se hace una rápida incursión en la alteración que el pensamiento económico ha experimentado con la crisis actual.

Abstract: In this article the evolution of economic tough since the crisis of the seventies is briefly revised. First, the reasons for the decline of Keynesianism are presented together with the ones that led to the recovery of Neoclassical principles and neoliberal policies, and then the development of changes in Marxist economic though is reviewed. A very rapid revision of the changes in the economic though motivated by the present crisis is also intended. (más…)

Statistical Evidence of Falling Profits as Cause of Recession

Ganancias y crisis o recesiones en EUA

Ganancias y crisis o recesiones en EUA

Tapia Granados, José A. “ Statistical Evidence of Falling Profits as Cause of Recession A Short Note”, Review of Radical Political Economics December 2012 vol. 44 no. 4 484-493.

Data on 251 quarters of the U.S. economy show that recessions are preceded by declines in profits. Profits stop growing and start falling four or five quarters before a recession. They strongly recover immediately after the recession. Since investment is to a large extent determined by profitability and investment is a major component of demand, the fall in profits leading to a fall in investment, in turn leading to a fall in demand, seems to be a basic mechanism in the causation of recessions.

Full article

What do international tests really show about U.S. student performance?

USA_student1

By Martin Carnoy, Stanford Graduate School of Education and EPI
and Richard Rothstein, EPI

Executive summary

Education policymakers and analysts express great concern about the performance of U.S. students on international tests. Education reformers frequently invoke the relatively poor performance of U.S. students to justify school policy changes.

In December 2012, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) released national average results from the 2011 administration of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan promptly issued a press release calling the results “unacceptable,” saying that they “underscore the urgency of accelerating achievement in secondary school and the need to close large and persistent achievement gaps,” and calling particular attention to the fact that the 8th-grade scores in mathematics for U.S. students failed to improve since the previous administration of the TIMSS.

Download full report

MORE: Authors’ response to OECD/PISA reaction to this report (PDF)

(más…)

Marxismos contra corriente: sopesando la década de los ochenta

latuff-us_bank_crisisFrancisco Fernández Buey y Carles Muntaner

Para especificar que se entiende por “crisis del marxismo” y qué marxismo es el que está en crisis hay que empezar con el importante cambio que ocurrió hacia finales de los setenta: el desplazamiento del centro del marxismo académico hacia los países de habla inglesa. De hecho, una parte importante del marxismo académico de los ochenta proviene del mundo anglosajón. Inglaterra y Estados Unidos, este último en particular, han sido productivos como también lo han sido los países nórdicos y los autores que han adoptado el inglés como su expresión académica y científica. Este desplazamiento pudo haber sido previsto por Louis Althusser y Lucio Coletti quienes proclamaron la crisis general del marxismo en 1977. De todas formas, es claro que a finales de los 70 la hegemonía del marxismo -si es posible hablar en estos términos- estaba pasando de Alemania y los países sureños de Europa hacia los Estados Unidos e Inglaterra, tal como Perry Anderson ha mostrado en detalle en un corto pero sugerente ensayo titulado “Tras la huella del materialismo histórico” (Siglo XXI, 1984). En forma simultanea al traslado del marxismo académico hacia los países de habla inglesa tiene lugar un debilitamiento progresivo del nexo entre movimientos que están agitando el mundo actual, movimientos que expresan “la ira del ciudadano humillado”, en palabras de Claude Julien. (más…)

The Left in Europe: From Social Democracy to the Crisis in the Euro Zone

euro-zone-crisis-deal-07-22-2011Leo Panitch and Adaner Usmani

Source: New Politics
Monday, January 21, 2013

Adaner Usmani: I wanted to begin by asking you about the history that precedes the crisis, and specifically about the evolution of European social democracy. On the one hand we have seen social democratic governments in Greece, France and elsewhere entirely complicit in the evisceration of the welfare state, and in the imposition of austerity. On the other hand, the tradition of which they’re a part brought many benefits to Europe’s working classes. The welfare state is a real achievement, after all, and it’s arguably held up better than many radicals argue. Certainly there’s a strong current of academic literature, known as the Varieties of Capitalism (VOC) school, which argues that its degeneration has been overstated.

This is a horribly broad question, of course, but how would you assess the legacy of social democracy?

Leo Panitch: Well, there’s no question that the reforms that social democracy secured in the post-war period were substantial reforms that have had very positive effects for the working-classes. No question.

That said, it depends where you’re coming from. If what you’re looking for is reforms within capitalism, fine. But these were parties that, initially, and in fact in their constitutions until the late 50s, were all committed to getting out of capitalism. (más…)

Michel Husson. La disminución de la participación de los salarios en el origen de la crisis

La disminución de la participación de los salarios en el origen de la crisis
Michel Husson…

La política de “devaluación interna”, es decir, la austeridad salarial se presenta actualmente
como un medio para reducir los desequilibrios intra-europeos y superar la crisis. De esta
manera se culpa implícitamente a los salarios de ser los responsables de la crisis. Lo que
defiendo aquí es justamente el punto de vista contrario: la disminución general de la
participación de los salarios (en el valor añadido) está en el origen de la crisis actual, en la
medida en que se acompaña de tendencias insostenibles. Una vez establecido el hecho de esa
disminución de los salarios y su mecanismos, el artículo propone un esquema general de
interpretación del modelo neoliberal. Y termina con un enfoque más prospectivo, haciendo
hincapié en el impasse al que conduce el ajuste salarial.
Los hechos
Todos los estudios recientes de organizaciones internacionales como la OCDE, el FMI y la
Comisión Europea coinciden en la disminución general de la participación de los salarios en el
valor agregado. La contribución más reciente es la de la OCDE que se plantea en su último
Panorama del Empleo los motivos de la “participación cada vez menor del trabajo” (OCDE,
2012).
En lo que sigue, se utiliza, a menos que se indique lo contrario, la base de datos Ameco de la
Comisión Europea. A pesar de que existen perfiles obviamente diferentes en función del país,
estos datos muestran que la tendencia es general en la Unión Europea-15 (UE-15). Y permiten
identificar una periodización común (Gráfico 1).

Haz clic para acceder a 5SP%20Husson%20salarios3.pdf

Michael Roberts. ¿Recuperación, recesión o depresión?

Michael Roberts. ¿Recuperación, recesión o depresión?

El reciente informe del Banco Mundial sobre las perspectivas económicas mundiales
(GEP13AFinalFullReport) es una lectura sombría sobre la economía mundial. El banco estima que
la economía global crecerá sólo un 2,4% este año – todo el mundo, incluyendo Asia, China y las
economías capitalistas en desarrollo de más rápido crecimiento. Es más o menos lo mismo que en 2012. El banco espera que llegue hasta el 3,3% en 2014, pero ya veremos, dado como ha revisado a la baja sus previsiones cada año. En junio pasado creía que el crecimiento mundial se situaría en el 3% este año.
En cuanto a los EEUU, pronostica un crecimiento real este año de solo un 1,9% y del 1,1% para el Reino Unido, muy por debajo de la mayoría de los pronósticos de consenso, mientras predice que la zona euro permanecerá en recesión. Por lo tanto, el Banco Mundial espera que los EEUU
crezcan más lentamente este año que el anterior. Entre las principales economías, solo China cree que tenga un crecimiento más rápido en 2013 (8,4%) que en 2012 (7,9%). De hecho, las llamadas economías capitalistas en vías de desarrollo sólo crecieron un 5,1% en el año 2012 en su conjunto, el más lento en una década.
He echado un vistazo a los datos sobre el crecimiento económico mundial del Banco Mundial
remontándome hasta 1960. Me ha vuelto a recordar lo grande que ha sido la Gran Recesión. El
PIB real mundial se contrajo en 2009 un 2,2%, ¡el único año en que se ha producido una
contracción desde 1960! A pesar de la profunda recesión de 1982 aún hubo un pequeño aumento en el PIB mundial. Y subió más del 1% en la primera recesión mundial de la posguerra en 1974.

Haz clic para acceder a R%20R%20.pdf

La crítica “light” al capitalismo en The Guardian

Protesters march for jobs in London in 2011. Photograph: Andy Rain/EPA

Protesters march for jobs in London in 2011. Photograph: Andy Rain/EPA

Austerity? Call it class war – and heed this 1944 warning from a Polish economist

The Guardian, Monday 14 January 2013

The single best guide to what happened in Britain last week was published in 1944. Naturally, its author was a Polish economist. Even economics students may not have heard of Michał Kalecki – but it’s the discipline that got small, rather than his legacy. In his time, Kalecki was recognised as having anticipated some of Keynes’s most important ideas, years before the Master published his General Theory, and he exerted a big influence on such legendary Cambridge thinkers as Joan Robinson and Nicky Kaldor.

His article, Political Aspects of Full Employment, explains with an almost eery prescience why the coalition is attacking our wages, our working terms and conditions and our welfare state.

Michal Kalecki Economist Michał Kalecki.

The tone is exhilaratingly brisk. “A solid majority of economists” agree on how to solve a slump, Kalecki says. The government borrows more and invests the cash either in building schools and hospitals or in providing benefits and tax cuts; this boosts demand and generates employment. Ta-da! Two pages in, and he has both fixed the problem of recessions and despatched most of the arguments against public borrowing that we have heard with such tedious frequency in the past five years.

What if savers become wary of lending to the state? Then, Kalecki says, the Treasury pays higher interest rates – and, since most of its lenders are British (just like now), the money will still flow back into the economy. But he notes that Churchill’s war coalition has run “astronomical budget deficits”, while “the rate of interest has shown no rise since the beginning of 1940”. What if it becomes too costly to keep on top of the national debt? Then ministers should raise more funds, not by taxing ordinary pay or spending, which would slow the economy, but with a levy on idle wealth.

That proposal, by the way, is tossed out in a mere footnote on the second page; and, reader, if you can’t love a man who comes up with a novel way of soaking the rich in one short italicised paragraph, then I fear we’re never going to be friends.

Having rattled through the urgent problems, Kalecki points out that a booming economy and healthy profits would be good for the “leaders of industry”, but that they will never support such government intervention. And in a sentence that sums up post-crash Britain, he identifies one of the principal sources of resistance as “so-called ‘economic experts’ closely connected with banking and finance” along with “big business”.

The opposition posed by this coalition of bosses and financiers is motivated by three factors. First, they want as little government interference in the economy as possible; second, they don’t want the state expanding into new areas and so doing them out of business. But the thing that really keeps the capitalists awake at nights is the boost to workers’ confidence that will be provided by a heathy jobs market. They will demand more pay, better working conditions, perhaps even a say in how their companies are run. Fully employed, well-paid Britons will have more cash to buy things, so a healthy economy supported by the government is better for corporate profits than a sick one. “But ‘discipline in the factories’ and ‘political stability’ are more appreciated by the business leaders than profits”. Rather an insecure and cowed workforce than a confident and boisterous one.

But it’s Kalecki’s “political business cycle” that sums up the world we’re in now. Rather than opting for public investment and a healthy recovery, Britain is stuck in a slump that austerity and a blind trust in private-sector vigour is only deepening. But the parallels don’t stop there. Last week, the day after MPs voted through a bill for real-terms cuts year upon year in benefits for the jobless and the low-paid, newspapers led on government briefings that the butchering of the welfare state would not stop there. Next, the FT reported, winter fuel allowance would be for the chop.

Meanwhile, living standards for those in work are also under attack: through wages that are falling further and further behind inflation and government schemes to sacrifice workplace rights in return for share options. For those slow on the uptake, there is always William Hague, telling Britons to “work harder“.

The rhetoric is also echoed in our media. Last Friday, the Guardian’s librarians went through all the British tabloids and broadsheets since 2007. Up to 2010, they found that Fleet Street was quite restrained in its use of the term “scrounger”: a mere 46 mentions (when discussing benefits or welfare) for all of 2007. In 2010, though, that shot up to 219 mentions, and last year 240 mentions. As for shirkers v strivers, the false opposition du jour, newspapers did not use the phrase at all until 2010. Last year, the total was 10. In the first two weeks of 2013, the press had already racked up 30 mentions.

Whether from politicians or the press, these justifications for austerity are getting more strident even while evidence of austerity’s failure is stacking up. It may be that Britain goes into a third recession this year; it is certainly not going to enjoy a recovery. And what was always evident in the coalition’s spending plans issued back in 2010 – that our welfare state and public realm were going to get shredded – is slowly but surely materialising.

This assault on an entire social contract, says Malcolm Sawyer, a leading expert on Kalecki, is what his subject warned about. “The argument for dealing with budget deficits has provided cover for attacking wages and benefits.” And austerity is just code for the transfer of wealth and power into ever fewer hands.

Fuente: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/jan/14/deepening-mess-words-polish-economist

Rosa Luxemburg película dirigida por Margarethe von Trotta, 1986

rosaluxemburgposter

La libertad sólo para los partidarios del gobierno, sólo para los miembros de un partido, por numerosos que ellos sean, no es libertad. La libertad es siempre libertad para el que piensa diferente.
Rosa Luxemburgo
Sinopsis: Con gran rigor histórico, narra un retrato de la líder socialista Rosa Luxemburg, desde fines del siglo XIX hasta su muerte en 1919. El guión de cuatro partes y un prólogo presenta a Rosa durante prisión en Wronke, en 1917. La primera parte retrocede a fines del siglo pasado y comienzos del actual. Rosa Luxemburgo se halla al principio de su carrera como periodista de cuestiones políticas y militante del partido socialista. Más que el éxito profesional, desea ser una mujer al lado de Leo Jogiches, su amante y compañero de lucha. Luego de una breve estadía en Varsovia, adonde acude Rosa para prestar su apoyo a la primera Revolución Rusa, se ve detenida y encarcelada por este motivo, hasta que los compañeros del Partido Socialista alemán obtienen su rescate. En 1906, regresa a Berlín. A partir de ese momento, su historia es narrada en forma cronológica hasta su muerte en enero de 1916. Estas informaciones históricas acerca de la revolucionaria Rosa Luxemburgo constituyen una parte importante en el film. Pero igual importancia posee la descripción del mundo de esta mujer.
Datos filmográficos:
Director: Margarethe von Trotta Actores: Barbara Sukowa, Daniel Olbrychski, Otto Sander, Adelheid Arndt, Jürgen Holtz, Doris Schade, Hannes Jaenicke, Jan Biczycki, Karin Baal, Winfried Glatzeder, Regina Lemnitz, Barbara Lass, Dayna Drozdek, Henryk Baranowski, Patrizia Lazreg. Género: Biográfica País: Checoslovaquia, Alemania Oriental. Año: 1986 Idioma: Alemán con subtítulos en Español Incrustados Duración: 114 Minutos

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