Economía marxista para el Siglo XXI

Paul Cockshott's Blog

Paul Cockshott

I have been working on producing a table of capital stocks for the UK by industry and type of asset. The aim is to have the data required to set out hypothetical national economic plans for the UK. These would enable exploring things like how to restructure the economy to shift to low CO 2 emissions or how to eliminate the trade deficit. But having done the initial preparation of a capital matrix it becomes possible to use it for other purposes. One is to test price of production theory.
A substantial body of literature now exists on empirical tests of Marxian price theories. Researchers have performed comparisons between theoretical price structures derived from Marx’s Capital[8] and observed market prices[109112124515616]…. Many of these studies only use flows of…

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A review of The Economics of Military Spending: A Marxist perspective – by Adem Yavuz Elveren, Routledge, 2019. Brown University’s Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs published its annual “Costs of War” report last week. This refers only to the costs of war for the US. It takes into consideration the Pentagon’s spending and […]

a través de Milex and the rate of profit — Michael Roberts Blog

La parte 2 de la nota, aquí. En la segunda parte de esta nota señalamos que entre las causas contrarrestantes de la caída de la tasa de ganancia, dos están orgánicamente vinculadas a la misma LTDTG: la que se origina por el aumento de la tasa de plusvalía cuando aumenta la productividad –elevación de […]

a través de La teoría marxista de la acumulación y crisis (3) — Rolando Astarita [Blog]

Michael Höhle

We follow up on last weeks post on using Gapminder data to study the world’s income distribution. In order to assess the inequality of the distribution we compute the Gini coefficient for the world’s income distribution by Monte Carlo approximation and visualize the result as a time series. Furthermore, we animate the association between Gini coefficient and homicide rate per country using the new version of gganimate.

Captura 1


One of the main messages of the Chapter ‘The Gap Instinct’ of the book Factfulness is that there is no justification of the ‘we’ and ‘them’ classification of countries anymore, because ‘they’ have converged towards the same levels in key indicators such as life expectancy, child mortality, births per female. The difference between countries is, hence, not as many imagine it to be: there is less inequality and no real gap. While reading, I became curious about the following: what if countries became more equal, but simultaneously inequality within countries became bigger? This was also indirectly a Disqus comment by F. Weidemann to the post Factfulness: Building Gapminder Income Mountains. Aim of the present post is to investigate this hypothesis using the Gapminder data by calculating Gini coefficients. Furthermore, we use the country specific Gini coefficients to investigate the association with the number of homicides in the country.

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I just returned from Beijing where I participated in the International Symposium ‘Modern China and the modernization of Developing Countries’, organized by the School of Marxism of the Peking University (12-13 October 2019). I presented a paper titled ‘Τhe end of the globalization myth and the continuing importance of imperialist rivalries’. An expanded version of […]

a través de ‘Τhe end of the globalization myth and the continuing importance of imperialist rivalries’, S.Mavroudeas – Peking University, School of Marxism — Stavros Mavroudeas Blog

Mario Montesino, Armando Álvarez, Juan José López and Meraris López*


This article inquires the relationship between the market prices and the analytical prices of the labor theory of value in El Salvador’s economy between 1990 and 2006. A new methodological perspective is proposed for the labor value and the production’s prices, measured with an emphasis on the distinction of the labor’s complexity of Marx and the importance of the full payment of the value of labor power. The data utilized for these estimations comes from El Salvador’s input-output tables from 1990 to 2006, obtained through the transformation of the supply and use tables with the model B of Eurostat. The article’s novelty is the theoretical approach for the values and production’s prices measuring; moreover, is one of the first research on this topic in a Central American country. The fundamental Marxian’s variables obtained are compared with the approach used by Shaikh (1984, 2016); Ochoa (1984) and Guerrero (2000); Sánchez, Álvarez and López (2017). Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between the market prices and the values is calculated.

(*) Department of Economics, Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas (UCA), El Salvador

I. Introduction

During the eighties, the analyses that pretended to archive the labor value’s empirical measuring from the Marxist theory began to generalize. These analyses were based on Sraffa (1966) and Pasinetti’s (1984) approaches which proposed to use Input-Output Tables (IOT) and matrix algebra to measure labor-values, direct prices and prices of production. In this manner, the debate about the “transformation problem” provided new analytical tools and methodologies to continue looking for answers for Marx’s (1981) unsolved problems on Capital’s Volume III.

In this spirit, we present in this article a new proposal about this transformation process that would be appointed as “New Approach”. This proposal has focused on Marx’s distinction about simple and skilled labour and the importance of full payment of the labor power’s value. Moreover, this proposal has been elaborated considering El Salvador’s productive and labor market reality in specific, but Central and Latin-American countries’ in general, since our countries share many characteristics and limitations. Is plausible to think that this new approach fits better with our own economic conditions.

The second section of this article presents one proposal to the transformation problem, developed by Anwar Shaikh, Diego Guerrero and Edward Ochoa. This methodology will be the comparison point with our own proposal. The third section presents the “New Approach” methodology to this problem, explaining the main differences from Shaikh, Guerrero and Ochoa’s proposal in specific, but with others solutions to this problem in general. The forth section presents the data’s sources used in this research and also the methodology to calculate matrices and vectors required for labor-value’s measuring.

The fifth section presents the results from measuring labor-values and direct prices with both methodologies applied to El Salvador’s economy from 1990 to 2006, using the Input-Output Tables (OIT), while the direct prices are compared with the market prices to establish which methodology fits better with the Salvadorian market behavior. Also, the fundamental Marxian variables are calculated to study El Salvador’s economic behavior. Finally, conclusions and final thoughts are presented about the new approach’s explanatory capacity about the Salvadorian economy.

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Fragmento del ASES (2017)Departamento de Economía UCA. (2017). Análisis Socioeconómico de El Salvador, año 2017. El Salvador: Universidad Centroamericana,  José Simeón Cañas.

César Sánchez

   Esta sección tiene como objeto determinar el crecimiento de la productividad desde la perspectiva de la teoría del valor trabajo de 1990 a 2006 con las tablas insumo producto de El Salvador. El primer objetivo es establecer un marco teórico que derive en un concepto mensurable. El segundo, es mostrar que esta medida está relacionada con la llamada productividad del trabajo, una medida con ciudadanía en la teoría del valor marxista,  tal y como lo apunta Valle (1991). Tercero, se propone descomponer a la productividad, de un lado, por las contribuciones del trabajo y capital, y  por otro, por las contribuciones por ramas de actividad. La investigación encuentra que: 1) la productividad, ha crecido para el periodo en 2.9%, la productividad total de los factores y la laboral lo han hecho en 3.3% y 3.6% respectivamente, es decir, hay bastante similitud en estas cadencias y 2) que el factor principal de ese aumento lo soporta el ahorro de trabajo el cual contribuye con 65%, el capital lo hace con el 35% y 3) las ramas que más contribuyen están en servicios primero y en la manufactura después; al parecer, el sector agrícola ha tendido a contribuir negativamente a la productividad agregada.

Aunque las fuentes estadísticas por ahora no permiten realizar un estudio más amplio, y aunque en sentido estricto el Banco Central de Reserva, BCR, presenta cuadros de oferta y utilización y no matrices de insumo producto (MIP), y aunque aquellas están valoradas a precios de comprador y no básicos, con todo, las estadísticas permiten realizar una primera valoración de la productividad y su descomposición.

La estructura de la sección es la siguiente, primero se esbozan las definiciones sobre valor y productividad, conceptos intrincados dentro de la teoría del valor trabajo, en segundo lugar se formaliza la media anterior, demostrando como a partir de las MIP es totalmente posible determinar el valor sectorial y agregado y observar su evolución temporal, además se muestra como en 1990 los valores explican bien a los precios de mercado, lo cual demuestra la fortaleza de la teoría del valor y afianza el terreno para poder estimar la evolución en el tiempo de los valores ramales en El Salvador de 1990 a 2006. En tercer lugar se observa la productividad sectorial y agregada. En cuarto, se descompone la productividad por las contribuciones del trabajo y capital, se mostrará como los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el crecimiento de la productividad laboral salvadoreña para este periodo. Finalmente se esbozan algunas conclusiones.

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